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[考研英语] 考研英语阅读理解精读五十

2011-08-24 00:00:00来源:网络

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  Mobile phones are making life better for people in remote, underserved areas of India. They no longer have to walk kilometers to public call offices to use a telephone—an essential tool for buying and selling goods based on the latest market data, getting credit from lenders and other commonplace activities. So far, most of the benefits have come from one of the phone"s simplest features: voice calls.

  With more than 250 million mobile users and 6 million new ones added each month, India now has the "teledensity" to support more-sophisticated mobile technologies, which could have a big impact on Indian society and the economy in the next few years. These include "voice broadcast" services that would let a truck owner inform residents of a village about a scheduled trip to the city, or doctors announce the availability of polio vaccinations. A more complex system would allow a small business, say, to keep track of shipments. What's holding up these services is the lack of mobile banking.

  With urban markets nearing saturation, global giants like Nokia are now looking to appeal to the hinterlands. Reliance Communications, which has offered Internet service over its mobile phones since 2002, is sponsoring a contest this year for developers to invent new rural services. "We want to really take advantage of our mobile platform, our data network, and our ability to provide the mobile Internet experience to bridge the digital divide," says Mahesh Prasad, president of applications and development.

  Several small companies are at work on mobile banking for small businesses. New Delhi-based ekgaon technologies has developed a system for tracking transactions made by so-called Self Help Groups, which pool members' money and offer small loans to poor people. The system uses a camera-equipped mobile phone to scan forms and a voice-recognition system. A.Little.World, a mobile software business in Mumbai, has developed a microfinance and payment system that lets customers perform banking transactions through a local agent affiliated with a bank. Customers get a secure electronic identity via phone or smart card; agents take deposits and dispense cash. Biometric data, such as fingerprints, make the phones and smart cards more secure than paper-based banking. A.Little.World has extended such services to about 400 local businesses acting as agents. And it's now working on a national rollout with the State Bank of India—the biggest player in the rural market. Meanwhile, ekgaon, whose partners include CARE, WorldVision and the World Bank, has a pilot transaction-management system for 10,000 Self Help Groups, with plans to extend it to 14 Indian states.

  Mobile banking services can reduce the cost of transactions for loans and other services—the main obstacle to providing banking for the poor—by as much as three quarters, according to ekgaon's chief operating officer Rohit Magotra. Mobile transactions could have an even broader effect applied to India's social-security payments and public-distribution system, which sells essential goods to the poor at subsidized rates. By March 2008, people in 8,000 villages in Andhra Pradesh will get their benefits zapped via mobile phone to their smart cards, which they may eventually use instead of cash to buy goods at the ration shop. A.Little.World, which is building the system, says a nationwide service could help reduce fraud in the public-distribution system. It would also mean going from a bankless world to a cashless one, maybe even faster than America or Europe.

  1. Which one of the following statements is NOT true of the “voice broadcast” services?

  [A] The services are oriented to the needs of people in rural area.
  [B] The services are based on sophisticated mobile technologies.
  [C] The services have great impact on the Indian society.
  [D] The services are on the horizon by implementing mobile banking.

  2. Golbal giants like Nokia are turning their focus on the rural areas because_____

  [A] they want to bridge the digital gap between urban and rural areas.
  [B] people in the rural areas are becoming prosperous and are eager to take advantage of the motile  technology.
  [C] they have almost exhausted the potential of urban markets.
  [D] the technologies for services of rural areas are now well developed.

  3. The system developed by A. Little. World. is more secure than the traditional banking because _____

  [A] it adopts the fingerprints as the security data.
  [B] it uses a voice-recognition system.
  [C] it give each customer an electronic ID.
  [D] it uses a biometric recognition system.

  4. Mobile banking services have the following advantages except_____

  [A] reducing the cost of transactions.
  [B] preventing fraud in public service.
  [C] making the poor’s life more convenient.
  [D] diminishing the function of cash.

  5. The passage is mainly about_____

  [A] the use of Mobile Phone in India.
  [B] India’s mobile technologies.
  [C] Mobile banking services in India.
  [D] the development of mobile transactions.

  文章剖析:

  这篇文章介绍了印度研发移动银行服务的情况。第一段讲述了移动电话给农村地区带来的方便;第二段讲述印度许多移动服务目前受限,没有开通移动银行服务;第三段讲述目前国际大亨在准备向农村地区拓展;第四段讲述印度目前一些公司研发移动银行的情况;第五段讲述移动银行的优点。

  词汇注释:

  polio n 脊髓灰质炎;小儿麻痹症 saturation n. 饱和
  zap v. 遥控 fraud n. 欺诈

  难句突破:

  (1) With more than 250 million mobile users and 6 million new ones added each month, India now has the "teledensity" to support more-sophisticated mobile technologies, which could have a big impact on Indian society and the economy in the next few years.

  [主体句式] India now has …to support…

  [结构分析]这是一个复合句,后面which引导的非限定性定于从句用来修饰前面的technologies;前面with…是句子的状语。

  [句子译文] 印度有两亿五千万的移动电话用户,而且每个月还有600万新增用户。现在印度的“电话覆盖”已经可以支撑更加复杂的移动技术,这在未来的几年内会对印度的社会、经济都产生巨大的影响。

  (2) New Delhi-based ekgaon technologies has developed a system for tracking transactions made by so-called Self Help Groups, which pool members' money and offer small loans to poor people.
[主体句式] New Delhi-based ekgaon technologies has developed…

  [结构分析]这是一个复合句,which引导的定语从句用来修饰Self Help Groups; 主句中made by…作system的定语。

  [句子译文] 位于新德里的ekgaon技术已经研发出了一个系统来跟踪“自助集团”的交易,该公司把会员的资金收集起来,以为穷人提供小型贷款。

  题目分析:

  1. Which one of the following statements is NOT true of the “voice broadcast” services? 1.关于“语音广播”服务,下列哪个陈述是错误的?

  [A] The services are oriented to the needs of people in rural area. [A]该服务是针对偏远农村地区人们的需要而设立的。
  [B] The services are based on sophisticated mobile technologies. [B] 该服务基于复杂的移动技术。
  [C] The services have great impact on the Indian society. [C]该服务对印度社会产生了重大影响。
  [D] The services are on the horizon by implementing mobile banking. [D]很快就会有通过实行移动银行来实现的服务

  [答案] C

  [难度系数] ☆☆☆☆

  [分析]细节题。文章第二段提到了“语音广播”服务,因为提到的都是农村,那么选项A的表述是正确的;选项B,第二段提到了印度目前的移动电话覆盖已经可以支持更为复杂的移动技术了,而其中一个就是语音广播服务。选项C,文中描述该服务只是关于在农村地区的情况,而不是整个社会那么大的范围,因此C的描述过于广泛,实际情况在文中没有提及。选项D的表述也是正确的,因为文中一直用将来时来谈论这些技术。因此,C选项为正确答案。

  2. Golbal giants like Nokia are turning their focus on the rural areas because_____ 2.像诺基亚这样的全球大亨将他们的注意力转向了农村地区因为_____

  [A] they want to bridge the digital gap between urban and rural areas. [A] 他们希望可以弥合城乡之间的数字鸿沟。
  [B] people in the rural areas are becoming prosperous and are eager to take advantage of the mobile technology. [B] 农村地区的人们变得更加富裕,他们渴望能够利用移动技术。
  [C] they have almost exhausted the potential of urban markets. [C] 他们几乎已经完全开发了城市市场的潜力。
  [D] the technologies for services of rural areas are now well developed. [D] 农村地区服务的技术现在已经成熟了。

  [答案]C

  [难度系数] ☆☆☆

  [分析] 细节题。文章第三段提到“With urban markets nearing saturation, global giants like Nokia are now looking to appeal to the hinterlands”,即随着城市市场趋于饱和,他们才转向农村地区的,因此,说明城市市场的潜力已经基本上利用得差不多了。所以选项中C最为符合题意。其他三项显然都不是诺基亚这样的企业的目的。

  3. The system developed by A. Little. World. is more secure than the traditional banking because _____ 3. “小世界” 研发的系统比传统的银行更为安全因为_____

  [A] it adopts the fingerrpints as the security data. [A] 使用了指纹作为安全数据。
  [B] it uses a voice-recognition system. [B] 使用了语音识别系统。
  [C] it gives each customer an electronic ID. [C] 每个顾客可以取得了电子身份。
  [D] it uses a biometric recognition system. [D] 使用了生物识别系统。

  [答案] D

  [难度系数] ☆☆☆

  [分析]细节题。文章第四段提到了,“小世界”研发的这个系统因为使用了一些生物数据,例如指纹,这使电话和智能卡比纸上作业的银行更加安全。那么,选项中D最为符合题意。选项A的错误在于指纹只是其中一个例子,并不是唯一的做法。B不是“小世界”系统的特点。而C选项的表述虽然是“小世界”的 特点,却并不是其安全的直接原因。

  4. Mobile banking services have the following advantages except_____ 4.移动银行服务有除了_____外下面所有的优点。

  [A] reducing the cost of transactions. [A] 降低交易费用
  [B] preventing fraud in public service. [B] 防止在公共服务中诈骗
  [C] making the poor’s life more convenient. [C] 使穷人的生活更为便捷
  [D] diminishing the function of cash. [D] 取消现金的作用

  [答案]D

  [难度系数] ☆☆☆

  [分析] 细节题。第五段提到了该服务的一些优点,比如减少交易费用;穷人的补贴直接打入智能卡可以直接用智能卡区配给商店买东西;可以减少公共分配体系中的诈骗行为。因此,选项A、B、C都是该服务的优点,只有选项D不是。

  5. The passage is mainly about_____ 5. 这篇文章主要是关于_____

  [A] the use of Mobile Phone in India. [A] 在印度移动电话的使用。
  [B] India’s mobile technologies. [B] 印度移动技术。
  [C] Mobile banking services in India. [C] 印度移动银行服务。
  [D] the development of mobile transactions. [D] 移动交易的发展。

  [答案] C

  [难度系数] ☆

  [分析] 主旨题。这篇文章主要讲述了印度对移动电话服务的探索和创新,主要谈论的内容一致围绕着mobile banking 来进行,因此选项中只有C最为符合题意。A和B以及D选项的表述都过于宽泛,不够确切。

  参考译文:

  移动电话可以改善印度那些地处偏远、服务设施不完善地区人们的生活。他们不再需要步行几公里到公共电话厅打电话,而电话是他们根据最新的市场信息进行买卖交易、从银行获取贷款或者其他普通服务的最基本工具。迄今为止,大部分的补贴都是通过电话的最简单功能——语音服务来解决的。

  印度有两亿五千万的移动电话用户,而且每个月还有600万新增用户。现在印度的“电话覆盖”已经可以支撑更加复杂的移动技术,这在未来的几年内会对印度的社会、经济都产生巨大的影响。这其中包括“语音广播”服务,卡车司机可以通过该服务通知村民们到城里的计划行程,医生们也可以通知脊髓灰质炎疫苗的到货通知,更为复杂的系统可以让小公司跟踪货运情况。而目前这些服务的障碍就在于没有移动银行。

  随着城市市场趋于饱和,一些国际大公司如诺基亚现在对偏远地区发生了兴趣。“信任通讯”自2002年以来就一直通过移动电话来提供因特网服务,它今年还赞助了一个竞赛,鼓励开发商发明新的郊区服务。“我们确实想要利用我们的移动平台、数据网络以及我们提供移动因特网服务的经验来为数字分界搭建桥梁。”

   应用和开发部经理Mahesh Prasad说道。

  几家小公司已经在为小型企业研制移动银行了。位于新德里的ekgaon技术已经研发出了一个系统来跟踪“自助集团”的交易,该公司把会员的资金收集起来,以为穷人提供小型贷款。该系统使用了一种装有照相机的移动电话来扫描图形,还使用了一种语音识别系统。“小世界”是孟买的一家小型移动软件公司,目前已经研制出微型金融支付系统,可以让顾客通过银行的附属本地代理商来进行银行交易。顾客通过电话或智能卡获得安全的电子身份,代理商收取存款、分配现金。生统数据——比如指纹——使电话和智能卡比纸上作业的银行更加安全。“小世界”已经将其服务扩展到了约400家作为代理商的本地企业,目前正在与印度国家银行一起策划首次展出,而国家银行是农村市场的最大玩家。同时,拥有CARE、世界视窗和世界银行这些合作伙伴的ekgaon拥有可以为一万家自助团体服务的交易管理系统,它计划是将其扩展到印度14个州。

  据ekgaon首席运营官Rohit Magotra称,移动银行服务最多可以减少贷款和其他服务交易费用的3/4,而交易费用是为穷人提供银行服务的最主要障碍。移动交易有更为广泛的作用,可以用于印度社会保障支付和公共分配系统,该系统以补助价格将基本物品卖给穷人。到2008年3月,Andhra Pradesh8000个村庄的居民都可以通过移动电话将他们的补贴打入智能卡中,然后用智能卡而不再是现金到定量配给商店购买商品。“小世界”正在建立这种系统,它认为全国性的服务有助于减少公共分配体系中欺诈行为,还意味着可以从无银行的世界进入无现金的世界,可能印度要比美国或欧洲更早实现。


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