This year marks exactly two countries since the publication of Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Shelley. Even before the invention of the electric light bulb, the author produced a remarkable work of speculative fiction that would foreshadow many ethical questions to be raised by technologies yet to come.
Today the rapid growth of artificial intelligence (AI) raises fundamental questions:”What is intelligence, identify, or
consciousness? What makes humans humans?”
What is being called artificial general intelligence, machines that would imitate the way humans think, continues to evade scientists. Yet humans remain fascinated by the idea of robots that would look, move, and respond like humans, similar to those recently depicted on popular sci-fi TV series such as “Westworld” and “Humans”.
Just how people think is still far too complex to be understood, let alone reproduced, says David Eagleman, a Stanford University neuroscientist. “We are just in a situation where there are no good theories explaining what consciousnesss actually is and how you could ever build a machine to get there.”
But that doesn’t mean crucial ethical issues involving AI aren’t at hand. The coming use of autonomous vehicles, for example, poses thorny ethical questions. Human drivers sometimes must make split-second decisions. Their reactions may be a complex combination of instant reflexes, input from past driving experiences, and what their eyes and ears tell them in that moment. AI “vision” today is not nearly as sophisticated as that of humans. And to anticipate every imaginable driving situation is a difficult programming problem.
Whenever decisions are based on masses of data, “you quickly get into a lot of ethical questions,” notes Tan Kiat How, chief executive of a Singapore-based agency that is helping the government develop a voluntary code for the ethical use of AI. Along with Singapore, other governments and mega-corporations are beginning to establish their own guidelines. Britain is setting up a data ethics center. India released its AI ethics strategy this spring.
On June 7 Google pledged not to “design or deploy AI” that would cause “overall harm,” or to develop AI-directed weapons or use AI for surveillance that would violate international norms. It also pledged not to deploy AI whose use would violate international laws or human rights.
While the statement is vague, it represents one starting point. So does the idea that decisions made by AI systems should be explainable, transparent, and fair.
To put it another way: How can we make sure that the thinking of intelligent machines reflects humanity’s highest values? Only then will they be useful servants and not Frankenstein’s out-of-control monster.
31. Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein is mentioned because it
A. fascinates AI scientists all over the world.
B. has remained popular for as long as 200 years.
C. involves some concerns raised by AI today.
D. has sparked serious ethical controversies.
32. In David Eagleman’s opinion, our current knowledge of consciousness
A. helps explain artificial intelligence.
B. can be misleading to robot making.
C. inspires popular sci-fi TV series.
D. is too limited for us to reproduce it.
33. The solution to the ethical issues brought by autonomous vehicles
A. can hardly ever be found.
B. is still beyond our capacity.
C. causes little public concern.
D. has aroused much curiosity.
34. The author’s attitude toward Google’s pledge is one of
35. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
A. AI’s Future: In the Hands of Tech Giants
B. Frankenstein, the Novel Predicting the Age of AI
C. The Conscience of AI: Complex But Inevitable
D. AI Shall Be Killers Once Out of Control
31.【C】involves some concerns raised by AI today; 通过题干Mary Shelly’s novel Frankenstein及题文同序原则可定位至文章第一段，在该段尾句,fiction that would foreshadow many ethical questions to be raised by technologies yet to come. 此句中 ethical questions 可同义替换题干中的concern。故C为正选。
32.【D】is too limited for us to reproduce it;观点细节题。可通过关键词consciousness 回文定位至原文第2段尾句部分：we are just in a situation where there are no good theories explaining what consciousness actually is and how you could ever build a machine to get there. 可知我们将意识注入机器的能力是有限的，因为没有好的理论可以解释。
33.【B】is still beyond our capacity;根据题干关键词可定位至文章第3段,AI “vision”today is not nearly as sophisticated as that of humans.And to anticipate every imaginable driving situation is a difficult programming problem.该句说到：当下，人工智能的思维还不能达到人类的精密程度，去让机器去预设每一种驾驶情形是一个困难的编程问题。由此说明，去解决人工智能所带来的道德问题，是在人类的能力范围之外的。
34.【A】affirmation;态度题 ，根据题干中的 the author’s attitude ,Google’s pledges.回文定位到第八段，，开头while转折，while the statement is vague, 与vague相反的即是观点，所以表示正向情感的词即是正解。affirmation表示确定。
35.【C】Frankenstein, the Novel predicting the Age of AI;主旨题。本文首段通过引用Mary Shelley的书引出本文要探讨的话题新技术所引发的道德问题。特别是在最后一段指出AI所涉及的道德问题已经触手可及。全篇复现了AI和conscience这两个关键词，所以答案选C
考研真题的正确打开姿势 新东方在线 大家都知道，不管做什么，都要先找对姿势。姿势找对了，可以事半功倍。姿势不对，可能吃力不
来源 : 新东方在线 2019-07-17 15:20:53 关键字 : 2020考研英语阅读
来源 : 网络 2019-05-09 15:47:08 关键字 : 2019考研英语一真题