扫码加入训练营

牢记核心词

学习得礼盒

2019考研英语一真题翻译参考答案及解析

2019-05-09 15:46:13来源:网络

  考研历年真题一定要用好,研究好。结合大纲和真题来选择辅导用书是最明智的。本文新东方在线带大家回顾2019考研英语一真题翻译参考答案及解析:

  Part C

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  It was only after I started to write a weekly column about the medical journals, and began to read scientific papers from beginning to end, that I realised just how bad much of the medical literature frequently was. I came to recognise various signs of a bad paper: the kind of paper that purports to show that people who eat more than one kilo of broccoli a week were 1.17 times more likely than those who eat less to suffer late in life from pernicious anaemia. (46) There is a great deal of this kind of nonsense in the medical journals which, when taken up by broadcasters and the lay press, generates both health scares and short-lived dietary enthusiasms.

  Why is so much bad science published? A recent paper, titled “The Natural Selection of Bad Science”, published on the Royal Society’s open science website, attempts to answer this intriguing and important question. It says that the problem is not merely that people do bad science, but that our current system of career advancement positively encourages it. What is important is not truth, but publication, which has become almost an end in itself. There has been a kind of inflationary process at work: (47) nowadays anyone applying for a research post has to have published twice the number of papers that would have been required for the same post only 10 years ago. Never mind the quality, then, count the number.

  (48) Attempts have been made to curb this tendency, for example, by trying to incorporate some measure of quality as well as quantity into the assessment of an applicant’s papers. This is the famed citation index, that is to say the number of times a paper has been quoted elsewhere in the scientific literature, the assumption being that an important paper will be cited more often than one of small account. (49) This would be reasonable if it were not for the fact that scientists can easily arrange to cite themselves in their future publications, or get associates to do so for them in return for similar favours.

  Boiling down an individual’s output to simple metrics, such as number of publications or journal impacts, entails considerable savings in time, energy and ambiguity. Unfortunately, the long-term costs of using simple quantitative metrics to assess researcher merit are likely to be quite great. (50) If we are serious about ensuring that our science is both meaningful and reproducible, we must ensure that our institutions encourage that kind of science.

  46-50参考答案及解析:

  (46) There is a great deal of this kind of nonsense in the medical journals which, when taken up by broadcasters and the lay press, generates both health scares and short-lived dietary enthusiasms.

  考点:there be句型、定语从句、状语从句、词义选择

  结构分析:含有定语从句和状语从句的复合句。句子主干为:There is a great deal of this kind of nonsense. in the medical journals为介词短语作状语修饰主干内容,其中名词journals又带有一个由which引导的定语从句,which 指代nonsense, 而定语从句中又含有一个由when引导的状语从句,从句层层包裹,形成复合句,翻译时注意理清从句间的关系。

  参考译文:医学期刊中由很多类似的无稽之谈,这些说法一旦被广播公司和新闻媒体报道,就会引发健康恐慌和短暂的饮食热潮。

  (47) Nowadays anyone applying for a research post has to have published twice the number of papers that would have been required for the same post only 10 years ago.

  考点:分词短语作定语、被动语态、比较结构

  结构分析:含有分词结构和定语从句的复合句。句子主干为:nowadays anyone … has to have published twice the number of papers….其中,“applying for a research post”为现在分词短语作定语修饰anyone,“that would have been required for the same post only 10 years ago”为定语从句修饰papers, “twice the number of…”为比较结构。

  参考译文:如今,任何申请研究职位的人都必须发表两倍于10年前同一职位所需的论文数量。

  (48) Attempts have been made to curb this tendency, for example, by trying to incorporate some measure of quality as well as quantity into the assessment of an applicant’s papers.

  考点:被动语态、插入语、介词短语作状语、词义选择、语序调整

  结构分析:本句为主谓结构的简单句。句子主干为:Attempts have been made….其中,“to curb this tendency”和“by…”分别为不定式短语和介词短语作状语修饰句子主干内容。

  参考译文:人们已经做出努力来遏制这种趋势,例如,将质量和数量标准纳入申请者的论文评估中。

  (49) This would be reasonable if it were not for the fact that scientists can easily arrange to cite themselves in their future publications, or get associates to do so for them in return for similar favours.

  考点:状语从句、虚拟语气、同位语从句

  结构分析:本句为含有状语从句的复合句。主干为:This would be reasonable…;“…that scientists can…”为that引导的同位语从句解释说明fact内容。“arrange to cite ….“和”get associates to do so…“为动宾结构并列和前面名词scientists构成主谓宾结构。

  参考译文:如果不是因为科学家们可以很容易地在未来的出版物中引用自己,或者让同事为他们这样作以换取类似的好处,这将是合理的。

  (50) If we are serious about ensuring that our science is both meaningful and reproducible, we must ensure that our institutions encourage that kind of science.

  考点:状语从句、宾语从句

  结构分析:本句为含有状语从句和宾语从句的复合句。主干为:…we must ensure that…其中,“if we are serious about…”为条件状语从句,“ensuring that …”为现在分词结构作介词宾语;“…that our institutions encourage that kind of science”为ensure引导的宾语从句。

  参考译文:如果我们确实要保证我们的科学既有意义又可再生,那么我们必须确保我们的机构鼓励这种科学的进步。



本文关键字: 2019考研英语一真题

考研英语核心词汇营

背词+听课+练习+督学,学习得礼盒

更多资料
更多>>
更多内容

关注新东方在线考研服务号

获得21考研真题及答案解析

1. 打开手机微信【扫一扫】,识别上方二维码;
2.点击【关注公众号】,速查历年考研真题答案解析。

近10年考研真题及答案免费下载
更多>>
更多公开课>>
更多>>
更多资料