2019年MBA考研英语二真题及解析(36-40题)

2019-12-15 15:33:42来源:​网络

   2019年MBA考研英语二真题及解析(36-40题)

  新东方在线为大家分享2019年MBA考研英语二真题及解析(36-40题),希望对大家复习MBA工商管理硕士考试有所帮助。

  2019年考研英语二真题及解析(36-40题)

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A,B,C or D.Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(40 points)

  Text 4

  Amold Schwarzenegger. Dia Mirza and Adrian Grenier have a message for you. It’s easy to beat plastic. They’re part of a bunch of celebrities starring in a new video for World Environment Day—encouraging you, the consumer, to swap out your single-use plastic staples like straws and cutlery to combat the plastics crisis.

  The key messages that have been put together for World Environment Day do include a call for governments to enact legislation to curb single-use plastics. But the overarching message is directed at individuals.

  My concern with leaving it up to the individual, however, is our limited sense of what needs to be achieved. One their own, taking our own bags to the grocery store or quitting plastic straws, for example, will accomplish little and require very little of us. They could even be detrimental, satisfying a need to have “done our bit” without ever progressing onto bigger, bolder, more effective actions—a kind of “moral licensing” that allays our concerns and stops us doing more and asking more of those in charge.

  While the conversation around our environment and our responsibility toward it remains centered on shopping hags and straws, we’re ignoring the balance of power that implies that as “consumers” we must shop sustainably, rather than as “ citizens” hole our governments and industries to account to push for real systemic change.

  It’s important to acknowledge that the environment isn’t everyone’s priority-or even most people’s. We shouldn’t expect it to be. In her latest book, Why Good People Do Bad Environmental Things. Wellesley College professor Elizabeth R. DeSombre argues that the best way to collectively change the behavior of large numbers of people is for the change to be structural.

  This might mean implementing policy such as a plastic tax that adds a cost to environmentally problematic action, or banning single-use plastics altogether. India has just announced it will “eliminate all single-use plastic in the country by 2022.” There are also incentive-based ways of making better environmental choices easier, such as ensuring recycling is at least as easy as trash disposal.

  DeSombre isn’t saying people should stop caring about the environment. It’s just that individual actions are too slow, she says, for that to be the only, or even primary, approach to changing widespread behavior.

  None of this is about writing off the individual. It’s just about putting things into perspective. We don’t have time to wait. We need progressive policies that shape collective action (and rein in polluting businesses), alongside engaged citizens pushing for change.

  36. Some celebrities star in a new video to

  A. demand new laws on the use of plastics

  B. urge consumers to cut the use of plastics

  C. invite public opinion on the plastics crisis

  D. disclose the causes of the plastics crisis

  37.The author is concerned that “moral licensing” may

  A. mislead us into doing worthless things

  B. prevent us from making further efforts

  C. weaken our sense of accomplishment

  D. suppress our desire for success

  38. By pointing out out identity “citizens”, the author indicates that

  A. our focus should be shifted to community welfare

  B. our relationship with local industries is improving

  C. We have been actively exercising our civil rights

  D. We should press our government to lead the combat

  39. DeSombre argues that the best way for a collective change should be

  A. a win-win arrangement

  B. a self-driven mechanism

  C. a cost-effective approach

  D. a top down process

  40. The author concludes that individual efforts

  A. can be too aggressive

  B. can be too inconsistent

  C. are far from sufficient

  D. are far from rational

  36-40参考答案及解析:

  36.【答案】B. urge consumers to cut the use of plastics

  【解析】根据题干的关键词“some celebrities star in a new video”回文定位首段的第三句话,即“They are part of a bunch of celebrities starring in a new video for World Environment Day—encouraging you, the consumer, to swap out your single-use plastic staples like straws and cutlery to combat the plastic crisis.”意思是“鼓励消费者减少使用一次性塑料制品,从而对抗塑料危机”。仔细观察四个选项,我们发现选项B中的 “urge”一词与原文中的 “encourage”一词属于同义替换,“cut the use of plastics”与原文中的 “swap out your single-use plastic staples”意思一致,所以正确答案即为B选项。

  37.【答案】B. prevent us from making further efforts

  【解析】题干中问作者担忧“moral licensing”可能如何,利用引号中的关键词定位,回到文章第三段最后一句, “they could even be detrimental, satisfying a need to have “done our bit”without ever progressing onto bigger, bolder, more effective actions—a kind of “moral licensing” that allays our concerns and stops us doing more and asking more of those in charge.”意为“他们没有采取更大、更明显、更有效的措施...”,仔细观察选项,只有选项B中的”prevent us from making further efforts”,即“妨碍我们进一步的行动”,故而正确答案为B选项。

  38.【答案】D. We should press our governmental to lead the combat.

  【解析】根据题干中的关键词“By pointing out our identity as“citizens”, the author indicates that”,我们可以定位到原文中的第四段,因为该段只有一句话,所以根据关键信息我们只需要理解后半句 “rather than as “citizens”hold our governments and industries to account to push for real systematic change”,意即“而不是作为“市民”,去推动我们的政府和行业去做出真正的系统性的改变”。意思就是作者希望政府自发作出改变来应对当下的情形,反观选项,只有D选项表达出这一层含义,“我们应该施压于政府使其主导这场斗争”。故而正确答案是D选项。

  39.【答案】D. a top down process

  【解析】根据题干中的定位信息“DeSombre”以及“the best ways for a collective change”我们可以定位到文中的第五、六段,“Elizaberth R. DeSombre... for the change to be structural”,大意为这个教授认为集体性的改变大多数人行为最好的方法就是使其变成结构性的,第六段进一步从市民和政府的角度,阐述了这种结构化的改变。对比选项,只有D选项“自上而下的过程”最为符合。

  40.【答案】C. are far from sufficient

  【解析】根据题干信息以及解题的顺序原则,我们很快定位到最后一段,“None of this is about writing off the individual. It’s just about...We need progressive policies that shape collective action(and rein in polluting business), alongside engaged citizens pushing for change”。这段话都是作者的观点,作者认为当下时间紧迫,我们需要改变看问题的角度,需要更为进步的政策来推动集体行动以及热心的市民参与进来,单靠个人的努力远远不够,这与C选项中的“远远不够”同义替换,故而正确答案是C选项。

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