Unlikeso-called basic emotions such as sadness, fear, and anger, guilt emerges alittle later, in conjunction with a child's growing grasp of social and moralnorms. Children aren’t born knowing how to say I'm sorry; rather, they learnover time that such statements appease parents and friends-and their own consciences.This is why researchers generally regard so-called moral guilt, in the rightamount, to be a good thing.
In thepopular imagination, of course, guilt still gets a bad rap. It is deeplyuncomfortable - it's the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted withstones. Yet this understanding is outdated. “ There has been a kind of revivalor are thinking about what guilt is and what role guilt can serve, "saysAmrisha Vaish, a psychology researcher at the University of Virginia, addingthat this revival is part of a larger recognition that emotions aren’t binary-feelings that may be advantageous in one context may be harmful in another.Jealousy and anger, for example, may have evolved to alert us to importantinequalities. Too much happiness can be destructive.
Andguilt, by prompting us to think more deeply about our goodness, can encouragehumans to make up for errors and fix relationships. Guilt, in other words, canhelp hold a cooperative species together. It is a kind of social glue.
Viewedin this light, guilt is an opportunity. Work by Tina Malti, a psychologyprofessor at the University of Toronto, suggests that guilt may compensate foran emotional deficiency, In a number of studies, Malti and others have shownthat guilt and sympathy may represent different pathways to cooperation andsharing. Some kids who are low in sympathy may make up for that shortfall byexperiencing more guilt, which can rein in their nastier impulses. And viceversa: High sympathy can substitute for low guilt.
In a2014 study, for example, Malti looked at 244 children. Using caregiver assessmentsand the children’s self-observations, she rated each child’s overall sympathylevel and his or her tendency to feel negative emotions after moraltransgressions. Then the kids were handed chocolate coins. and given achance to share them with an anonymous child. For the low-sympathy kids, howmuch they shared appeared to turn on how inclined they were to feel guilty. Theguilt-prone ones shared more, even though they hadn’t magically become moresympathetic to the other child’s deprivation.
“That’sgood news" Malti says. “We can be prosocial because we caused harm and wefeel regret.”
21.Researchers think that guilt can be a goodthing because it may help______
A）foster a child’s moral development
B）regulate a child's basic emotions
C）improve a child's intellectual ability
D）intensity a child's positive feelings
解题关键：利用题干Researchers ，guilt， a good thing 定位到第一段末句this is why researcher generally regard so called moral guilt, inthe right amount, to be a good thing.定位句this is why 的this指代前一句话，children aren’t born knowing howto say ”I’m sorry”, rather, they learn over time that such statement appeaseparents and friend.孩子们并不是生来就知道如何说“对不起”，而是随着时间的推移，他们逐渐明白这样的话可以安抚父母和朋友通过语义理解可找出moraldevelopment.其次这句话较为细节来说名前面的观点，故词句前一句呼气，guilt emerges alittle late, in conjunction with a child’s growing grasp of social and moralnorms. 关键词moral再答案中原词复现。
22.According toparagraph 2，many people still considerguilt to be______
解题关键：利用题干关键词，many people still 表示很多人仍旧，可判断应该是很多人的传统性的看法，此题难在定位，因为关键词在文中并非原词出现，按照题文同序原则，第一题对应第一段，第二题则应该对应第二段，首句in the popular（对应的many people） imagination, of course, guilt still gets a bad rap（口碑差）。It is deeply uncomfortable—it’s the emotional equivalent of wearinga jacket weighted with stones.这让人深感不安——这就像穿着一件镶满石头的夹克一样让人情绪激动。Burdensome就是对此句的概括。
A）emotions are context-independent
B）an emotion can play opposing roles
C）emotions are socially constructive
D）emotional stability can benefit health
解题关键：利用题干关键词Vanish, rethinking,awareness定位到第二段转折处后，there has been a kind of revival orrethinking about what guilt is and what role guilt can serve,```adding thatthis revival is a part of larger recognition that emotion aren’t binary—feelingthat may be advantageous in one context may be harmful in another. 意识到这一复兴是更大的认识的一部分，即情绪不是二元的——在一个环境中可能是有利的感觉在另一个环境中可能是有害的.
24. Mati andothers have shown that cooperation and sharing_____.
A. may helpcorrect emotional deficiencies
B. can bringabout emotional satisfaction
C can result from either sympathy or guilt
D. may be theoutcome of impulsive acts
解题关键：利用题干. Mati and others，cooperation and sharing定位到Mati and othershave shown that guilt and sympathy may represent different pathways tocooperation and sharing. 内疚和同情可能代表着合作和分享的不同途径。答案是对词句的正话反说。
25.Theword“transgression”(Line 4,Para.5) is closest in meaning to________.
解题关键：She rates each child’s overall sympathylevel and his or her tendency to feel negative emotions after moraltransgression. 她对每个孩子的整体同情程度以及道德违规后的负面情绪倾向进行了评分。词句after表示动作前后。
Forestsgive us shade, quiet and one of the harder challenges in the fight againstclimate change. Even as we humans count on forests to soak up a good share ofthe carbon dioxide we produce, we are threatening their ability to do so. Theclimate change we are hastening could one day leave us with forests that emit morecarbon than they absorb.
Thankfully,there is a way out of this trap -but it involves striking a subtle balance.Helping forests flourish as valuable "carbon sinks "long into thefuture may require reducing their capacity to absorb carbon now. California isleading the way, as it does on so many climate efforts, in figuring out thedetails.
Thestate's proposed Forest Carbon Plan aims to double efforts to thin out youngtrees and clear brush in parts of the forest. This temporarily lowerscarbon-carrying capacity. But the remaining trees draw a greater share of the availablemoisture, so they grow and thrive, restoring the forests capacity to pull carbonfrom the air. Healthy trees are also better able to fend off insects. The landscapeis rendered less easily burnable. Even in the event of a fire, fewer trees
Theneed for such planning is increasingly urgent. Already, since 2010,drought andinsects have killed over 100 million trees in California, most of them in 2016alone, and wildfires have burned hundreds of thousands of acres.
Californiaplans to treat 35,000 acres of forest a year by 2020, and 60,000by2030-financed from the proceeds of the states emissions-permit auctions.That’s only a small share of the total acreage that could benefit, about half amillion acres in all, so it will be vital to prioritize areas at greatest riskof fire or drought.
Thestrategyalsoaimstoensurethatcarboninwoodymaterialremovedfromtheforests is locked away in the form of solid lumber or burned as biofuel invehicles that would otherwise run on fossil fuels. New research ontransportation biofuels is already under way.
Stategovernments are well accustomed to managing forests, but traditionally they’refocused on wildlife, watersheds and opportunities for recreation. Only recentlyhave they come to see the vital part forests will have to play in storing carbon.California’s plan, which is expected to be finalized by the governor next year,should serve as a model.
26. "oneof the harder challenges" implies ___
A. globalclimate change may get out of control
B. forests may become a potential threat
C. people maymisunderstand global warming
D. extremeweather conditions may arise
解题关键：利用题干关键词定位到首段首句：forests give usshade, quiet and one of the harder challenges against climate change.词句为观点句，可通过后面的细节理解此句话。The climate change we are hastening could one day leave us withforests that emit more carbon than they absorb. 我们正在加速的气候变化有一天可能会给我们留下森林，它们排放的碳超过了它们吸收的二氧化碳。可判断森林可能是潜在的威胁。
27. To maintainforests as valuable "carbon sinks", we may need to _
A. preservediversity of species
B. lower their present carbon-absorbing capacity
C. acceleratethe growth of young trees
D. strike abalance among different plants
解题关键：利用题干关键词定位到Helping forests flourishas valuable “carbon sinks ”long into the future may require reducing theircapacity to absorb carbon now, require是题干need to 的同义替换，答案为require后面的内容，答案里lower 是reduce的同义替换，carbon-absorbing capacity则几乎都为关键词原词出现。
28.California'sForest Carbon Plan endeavors to_
A. restore itsforests quickly after wildfires
B. cultivatemore drought resistant trees
C. find moreeffective ways to kill insects
D. reduce the density of some of its forests
解题关键：利用题干关键词定位到the state’sproposed Forest Carbon Plan aims to double efforts to thin out young trees andclear brush in parts of the forest（在森林的部分地方，把小树削薄，把灌木丛清理干净。）.题干中的endeavors 对应的efforts，则答案就是efforts后的内容。
29.what isessential to California's plan according to para. 5?
A. to obtainenough financial support
B. to carry itout before 2020
C. to handle the areas in the serious danger first
D. to perfectthe emission-permit auctions
解题关键：根据题干关键词定位到第五段末句 so it will be vitalto prioritize areas at greatest risk of risk of fire or drought（因此，优先考虑最容易发生火灾或干旱的地区至关重要。）. 题干的essential对应词句的vital。
30.the author'sattitude toward California's plan can be best described as _
解题关键：此题为态度题，问的是作者态度，因此B和C可排除，此为最后一题应优先对应末段，末段末句：California's plan， which is expected to be finalized by the government next year,should serve as a model. 加州的计划,预计将由政府完成,明年应该作为一个典范，可看出作者态度为正面。
Americanfarmers have been complaining of labor shortages for several years. Thecomplaints are unlikely to stop without an overhaul of immigration rules forfarm workers.
Congresshas obstructed efforts to create a more straightforward visa for agriculturalfarm workers that would let foreign workers stay longer in the U.S. and changejobs within the industry. If this doesn't change, American businesses,communities, and consumers will be the losers.
Perhapshalf of U. S. farm laborers are undocumented immigrants. As fewer such workersenter the country, the characteristics of the agricultural workforce arechanging. Today's farm laborers, while still predominantly born in Mexico, are morelikely to be settled rather than migrating and more likely to be married than single.They’re also aging. At the start of this century, about one-third of crop workerswere over the age of 35. Now more than half are. And picking crops is hard onolder bodies. One oft-debated cure for this labor shortage remains as
implausible as it's been all along: NativeU.S. workers won't be returning to the farm.
Mechanizationisn't the answer, either-not yet, at least. Production of corn, cotton, rice,soybeans, and wheat has been largely mechanized, but many high-value,labor-intensive crops, such as strawberries, need labor. Even dairy farms,where robots do a small share of milking, have a long way to go before they reautomated.
As aresult, farms have grown increasingly reliant on temporary guest workers usingthe H-2A visa to fill the gaps in the workforce. Starting around2012, requestsfor the visas rose sharply; from 2011 to 2016 the number of visas issued morethan doubled.
TheH-2A visa has no numerical cap, unlike the H-2B visa for nonagricultural work,which is limited to 66,000 a year. Even so, employers complain they aren't givenall the workers they need. The process is cumbersome, expensive, and unreliable.One survey found that bureaucratic delays led the average H-2Aworker to arriveon the job 22 days late. The shortage is compounded by federal immigrationraids, which remove some workers and drive others underground.
In a2012 survey 71 percent of tree-fruit growers and almost 80 percent of raisinand berry growers said they were short of labor. Some western farmers have respondedby moving operations to Mexico. From 1998 to 2000, 14.5 percent of the fruitAmericans consumed was imported. Little more than a decade later, the share ofimports was 25.8 percent.
Ineffect, the U.S. can import food or it can import the workers who pick it.
31. Whatproblem should be addressed according to the first two paragraphs?
A.Discrimination against foreign workers in the U.S
B. Biased lawsin favor of some American businesses
C. Flaws in U.S immigration rules for farm workers
D. Decline ofjob opportunities in U.S. agriculture
解题关键：此题关键是找出前两段的段落主旨，首段重点看American farmershave been complaining of labor shortages for several years。The complaints are unlikely to stop without an overhaul of immigration rules for farmworkers.美国农民多年来一直在抱怨劳动力短缺，如果不对农场工人的移民规定进行全面改革，这些抱怨不太可能停止. 答案是对首段末句的正话反说的表达。
32. One troublewith U.S. agricultural workforce is
A. the risingnumber of illegal immigrants
B. the highmobility of crop workers
C. the lack ofexperienced laborers
D. the aging ofimmigrant farm workers
解题关键：此题难在定位。As fewer such workers enterthe country, the characteristics of the agricultural workforce are changing.Today's farm laborers, while still predominantly born in Mexico, are morelikely to be settled rather than migrating and more likely to be married than single.They’re also aging. At the start of this century, about one-third of crop workerswere over the age of 35. Now more than half are. And picking crops is hard onolder bodies.首先说到美国劳动力的特征正在发生变化。我们要找到的是美国农业劳动力的一个问题，对应的是They’re also aging.。
33. What is themuch-argued solution to the labor shortage in U.S. farming?
A. To attractyounger laborers to farm work.
B. To getnative U.S. workers back to farming
C. To use morerobots to grow high-value crops
D. Tostrengthen financial support for farmers
解题关键：利用题干关键词定位到One oft-debated cure forthis labor shortage remains as
implausible as it's been all along: Native U.S. workerswon’t be returning to the farm. 题干的much-argued solution被同义替换为oft-debated cure，因此答案对应的为冒号后信息美国本土工人不会回到农场。
34.Agricultural employers complain about the H-2A visa for its______
A. slowgranting procedures
B. limit onduration of stay
D. control ofannul admissions
解题关键：题干问的是农业雇主抱怨H-2A签证的什么，利用题干关键词定位到 Even so, employers complain they aren't given all the workers theyneed. The process is cumbersome, expensive, and unreliable.这个过程繁琐、昂贵且不可靠。cumbersome对应的slow. Process 对应procedure
35, Which ofthe following could be the best title for this text?
A. U.S.Agriculture in Decline?
B. Import Foodor Labor?
C. AmericaSaved by Mexico?
D, Manpower vsAutomation?
解题关键：此题为主旨题，利用串线的方法将各段串联起来，发现workers和labor在这些位置上反复出现，重点看首末段，首段讲了几年来，美国农民一直抱怨劳动力短缺。且末段In effect, the U.S. can import food or it canimport the workers who pick it.强调它可以引进采摘工人。
Amold Schwarzenegger, Dia Mirza and AdrianGrenier have a message for you: It's easy to beat plastic. They’re part of abunch of celebrities staring In a new video for World Environment Day -encouraging you, the consumer, to swap out your single-use plastic staples tocombat the plastics crisis.
Thekey messages that have been put together for World Environment Day do include acall for governments to enact legislation to curb single-use plastics. But theoverarching message is directed at individuals.
Myconcern with leaving it up to individual, however, is our limited sense of whatneeds to be achieved. On their own, taking our own bags to the grocery the storeor quitting plastic straws, for example, will accomplish little and require verylittle of us. They could even be harmful, satisfying a need to have "doneour kind of" without ever progressing onto bigger, bolder, more effectiveactions -a kind of “moral licensing" that eases our concerns and stops usdoing more and asking more of those in charge.
Whilethe conversation around our environment and our responsibility toward itremains centered on shopping bags and straws, we're ignoring the balance of powerthat implies that as "consumers" we must shop sustainably, ratherthan as "citizens" hold our governments and industries to account topush for real systemic change.
It’simportant to acknowledge that the environment isn't everyone's priority-- oreven most peoples. We shouldn’t expect it to be. In her latest book, Why Good People Do Bad Environmental Things,Elizabeth R. Desombre argues that the best way to collectively change thebehavior of large numbers of people is for the change to be structural.
Thismight mean implementing policy such as a plastic tax that adds a cost to environmentallyproblematic action, or banning single-use plastics altogether. India has justannounced it will "eliminate all single-use plastic in the countryby2022." There are also incentive-based ways of making betterenvironmental choices easier, such as ensuring recycling is at least as easy astrash disposal.
Desombreisn’t saying people should stop caring about the environment. It's Just thatindividual actions are too slow, she says, for that to be the only, or even primary,approach to changing widespread behavior.
None of this is about writing off theindividual. It's Just about putting things into perspective. We don' t have timeto wait. We need progressive policies that shape collective action, alongsideengaged citizens pushing for change.
36. Some celebrities star in a new video to
A. demand new laws on the use of plastics
B. urge consumers to cutthe use of plastics
C. invite public opinion on the plasticscrisis
D. disclose the causes of the plastics crisis
解题关键：利用题干关键词定位到They’re part of abunch of celebrities staring In a new video for World Environment Day - encouraging you, theconsumer, to swap out your single-use plastic staples to combat the plasticscrisis.大意为：鼓励你，消费者，更换你的一次性塑料订书钉，以应对塑料危机。
37. The author is concerned that"moral licensing may
A. mislead us into doing worthless things
B. prevent us from makingfurther efforts
C. weaken our sense of accomplishment
D. suppress our desire for success
解题关键：利用关键词定位到a kind of “moral licensing" that eases our concerns and stopsus doing more and asking more of those in charge.一种“道德授权”可以减轻我们的担忧，阻止我们做更多的事情，并要求更多的负责人。
38. By pointing out our identity as "citizens,"the author indicates that
A. our focus should be shifted to communitywelfare
B. our relationship with local industries isimproving
C. we have been actively exercising our civilrights
D. we should press ourgovernments to lead the combat
解题关键：利用关键词定位到rather than as "citizens" hold our governments andindustries to account to push for real systemic change.而不是作为“公民”, 要求我们的政府和行业承担责任，推动真正的系统性变革。
39. Desombre argues that the best way for a collectivechange should be
A. a win-win arrangement
B. a self-driven mechanism
C. a cost-effective approach
D. a top-down process
解题关键：利用题干关键词定位到Desombre argues that the best way to collectively change the behavior of largenumbers of people is for the change to be structural.最好方法是使这种改变成为结构性的。以及后面提及的This might mean implementing policy such as a plastic tax，强调的是不能光靠个体，需要国家先制定政策和措施，然后再靠群体力量，因此是自上而下的。
40. The author concludes that individualefforts
A. can be too aggressive
B. can be too inconsistent
C. are far from sufficient
D. are far from rational
解题关键：此为最后一题优先对应末段，None of this is about writing off the individual. It's Just aboutputting things into perspective. We don' t have time to wait. We needprogressive policies that shape collective action, alongside engaged citizenspushing for change.这些都不是要抹杀一个人。而是要正确看待事物。我们没有时间等了。我们需要形成集体行动的进步政策，以及推动变革的热心公民。作者认为个人的努力是远远不够需要国家制定政策。
Part B Directions You are going to read alist of headings and a text. Choose the most sitable heading from the list A-Gfor each numbered paragraph (41-45). Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10points)
Five ways to makeconversation with anyone
In choosing a new home, Camille Mcclain’skids have a single demand: a backyard.
Mcclain's little ones aren't the only kidswho have an opinion when it comes to housing, and in many cases youngsters' viewsweigh heavily on parent’s real estate decisions, according to a 2018 Hamis Pollsurvey of more than 2,000 U.S. adults.
Whilemore families buck an older-gemcration proclivity to leave kids in the darkabout real estate decisions, realty agents and psychologists have mixed viewsabout the financial, personal and long-term effects kids opinions may have.
Theidea of involving children in a big ecision is a great idea because it can helpthem feel a sense of control and ownership in what can be an overwhelmingprocess, said Ryan Hooper, a clinical psychologist in Chicago.
"Childrenmay face serious difficulties in coping with significant moves, especially ifit removes them from their current school or support system." he said.
GregJaroszewski, a real estate brokers with Gagliardo Really Associates, said he'snot convinced that kids should be involved in selecting a home -- but theiropinions should be considered in regards to proximity to friends and socialactivities, if possible.
Youngerchildren should feel like they're choosing their home -- without actuallygetting a choice in the matter, said Adam Bailey, a real estate attorney basedin New York.
Askingthem questions about what they like about the backyard of a potential home willmake them feel like they’re being included in the decision-making process,Bailey said.
Manyof the aspects of home buying aren’t a consideration for children, said Tracey Hampson,a real estate agent based in Santa Clarita. Calif. And placing too muchemphasis on their opinions can ruin a fantastic home purchase.
“Speaking with your children before you make areal estate decision is wise, but I wouldn't base the purchasing decisionsolely on their opinions."Hampson said.
Theother issue is that many children -- especially older ones -- may base theirreal estate knowledge on HGTV shows, said Aaron Nomis of The Nomis Group inRiverside, Calif.
"They love Chip and Joana Gaines just as much as the rest of us,”he said. “HGTV has seriously changed how people view real estate. It's notshelter, it's a lifestyle. With that mindset change come some serious moneyconsequences.”
Kidstend to get stuck in the features and the immediate benefits to thempersonally, Norris said.
Parentsneed to remind their children that their needs and desires may change overtime, said Julie Gurner, a real estate analyst with Fitsmallbusiness.com.
"Theiropinions can change tomorrow, "Gurner said. "Harsh as it may be tosay, that decision should likely not be made contingent on a child's opinions,but rather made for them with great consideration into what home can meet theirneeds best -- and give them an opportunity to customize it a bit and make ittheir own.”
Thisadvice is more relevant now than ever before, even as more parents want toembrace the ideas of their children, despite the current housing crunch.
A. remarks that significant moves may pose challenges to children.
41. Ryan Hooper
B. says that it is wise to leave kids in the dark about real estate decisions.
42. Aclam Baile
C. advises that home purchases should not be based only on children's opinions.
43. Tracey Hampson
D. thinks that children should be give a sense of involvement in home buying decisions.
44. Aaron Norris
E. notes that aspects like children's friends and social activities should be considered upon home buying.
45. Julie Gumer
F. believes that home buying decisions should be based on children's needs rather than their opinions.
G. assumes that many children views on real estate are influenced by the media.
41 A. remarks that significant moves may posechallenges to children.
解题关键：定位两句话Theidea of involving children in a big decision is a great idea because it can helpthem feel a sense of control and ownership in what can be an overwhelmingprocess, said Ryan Hooper, a clinical psychologist in Chicago.
"Childrenmay face serious difficulties in coping with significant moves, especially if it removes them from their currentschool or support system." he said. Challenges对seriousdifficulties 的同义替换，其他为原词复现
42. D. thinks that children should be give asense of involvement in home buying decisions.
解题关键：定位两处Younger children should feel like they’re choosing their home --without actually getting a choice in the matter, said Adam Bailey, a realestate attorney based in New York.
Askingthem questions about what they like about the backyard of a potential homewill make them feel like they’re being included in the decision-makingprocess, Bailey said. A sense of involvement 是对第一处划线地方的同义替换
43．C.advises that home purchases should not be based only on children's opinions.
解题关键：Many of the aspects of home buying aren’t a consideration forchildren, said Tracey Hampson, a real estate agent based in Santa Clarita.Calif. And placing too much emphasis on their opinions can ruin a fantastichome purchase.
“Speaking with your children before you make areal estate decision is wise, but I wouldn't base the purchasing decisionsolely on their opinions."Hampson said. Only 替换solely, 其他为原词复现。
44. G.assumes that many children views on real estate are influenced by themedia.
解题关键：定位两处The other issue is that many children -- especially older ones --may base their real estate knowledge on HGTV shows, said Aaron Nomis of TheNomis Group in Riverside, Calif.
"They love Chip and Joana Gaines just as much as the rest of us,”he said. “HGTV has seriously changed how people view real estate. It'snot shelter, it's a lifestyle. With that mindset change come some serious moneyconsequences.” Media是对HGTV shows的抽象概括。
45. F.believes that home buying decisions should be based on children's needsrather than their opinions.
解题关键：定位两处Parents need to remind their children that their needs anddesires may change over time, said Julie Gurner, a real estate analyst withFitsmallbusiness.com.
"Theiropinions can change tomorrow, "Gurner said. "Harsh as it may be tosay, that decision should likely not be made contingent on a child'sopinions, but rather made for them with great consideration intowhat home can meet their needs best -- and give them an opportunity tocustomize it a bit and make it their own.” 都是原词复现。
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